Øyvind Skorge

Øyvind (Ovi) Skorge, Postdoctoral Fellow, Harvard University

Inequality and Inclusion: Democratization in 􏰀􏰁19th-century Germany and Norway

With Valerie Belu and Laura Bronner

Working paper (current versionJune, 2015)

This paper argues, on the basis of within-country case studies of 􏰀􏰁19th-century Norway and Germany, that the effect of landholding inequality on democratization depends on the effective level of enfranchisement. If enfranchisement is restricted, either officially by property or effectively by electoral fraud, increasing inequality has a negative effect on votes for democracy; if enfranchisement is unrestricted, the effect of increasing inequality on votes for democracy is positive. We support our argument with evidence for MPs’ voting pa􏰆tterns for democratizing reforms.