Inequality and Inclusion: Democratization in 19th-century Germany and Norway
With Valerie Belu and Laura Bronner
Working paper (current version: June, 2015)
This paper argues, on the basis of within-country case studies of 19th-century Norway and Germany, that the effect of landholding inequality on democratization depends on the effective level of enfranchisement. If enfranchisement is restricted, either officially by property or effectively by electoral fraud, increasing inequality has a negative effect on votes for democracy; if enfranchisement is unrestricted, the effect of increasing inequality on votes for democracy is positive. We support our argument with evidence for MPs’ voting patterns for democratizing reforms.